' SWEDEN. 599,
are the only ones that are well developed. The ore is carried by rail to Lulea on the Baltic Sea or across Norway to Ofoten. This; port, although so far north, is open all the year, while Lulea is inaccessible in winter. This railroad passes the great deposits of Kirunavaara and Luossavaara, where surveys indicate the existence of over 200,000,000 tons of ore above the water level. The Swedish Government has limited the amount for export to 1,500,000 tons per year. The ore runs from 57 to 70 per cent, in iron, the A grade being guaranteed between 67 and 70 per cent, with phosphorus below .05 per cent., but unfortunately there is comparatively little of this kind. The next class runs from 66 to 69 per cent, with phosphorus from .05 to .10 per cent., and so on down to the poorest with 57 to 61 per cent, of iron anfl 1.50 to 3 per cent, of phosphorus.
The field has been only partially explored, but the phosphorus is scattered haphazard throughout the whole deposit, so as to make careful selection necessary, and it seems certain that the greater part will run from 0.7 to 1 per cent, in phosphorus and possibly from 1 to 2 per cent. The ore is very hard and must be blasted. The sulphur is almost always below '0.10 per cent., the manganese about 0.30 per cent., but titanic acid is present in varying quantities from 0.3 to 1 per cent. In the immediate neighborhood are the Eoutivare deposits, of great extent, but as they contain only 50 per cent, of iron and carry 11 to 13 per cent, of titanic acid, they can hardly be looked upon as of great value.
Some of the older iron mines in Sweden offer ores of only moderate quality. The deposit at G-rangesberg has been already mentioned as being from 50 to 58 per cent, in iron, from .06 to .27 per cent, in phosphorus and .03 to .25 per cent, in sulphur. These beds have only lately come into prominence, being made valuable by the development of the basic process. The f ar-f amed'Dannemora mines, produce 47,000 tons per year. The phosphorus is extremely low, about .002 per cent., but the iron is 50 per cent, and the silica from 9 to 15 per cent. The Norberg mines, producing 138,000 tons, give 52 per cent, iron and from 2 to 32 per cent, of silica. Mention is sometimes made of the famous iron mountain of Taberg, but it is merely a rock carrying 31 per cent, of iron with 21 per cent, silica and 6 per cent, titanic acid. The exports of ore in 1904 amounted to about 3,000,000 tons. The Kirunavaara and Luo'ssa-